When you think of the word “science”, it is likely that “innovation”, “advancement”, or “for the betterment of humanity” comes to mind. But while competition—and even subterfuge between countries in order to gain a technological edge is generations old—continuing advancements in computational, medical, and defense industries have ratcheted up questions concerning fundamental research security. In particular: how to address the rewards vs. risks of open collaboration between foreign individuals/entities and their American counterparts, and to preserve intellectual property, especially IP with national security implications. A recent report (see PDF here) from the National Science Foundation-commissioned study by the independent JASON group calls foreign influence threat a complex issue that “can be addressed within the framework of research integrity”. But as highlighted in a brief overview, JASON concluded that U.S. scientists who violate government rules on disclosing foreign research ties should be investigated for research misconduct. The National Institutes of Health has been especially aggressive, flagging nearly 200 scientists deemed to have failed to disclose their ties to foreign entities, or improperly shared confidential information with overseas researchers. Rather than individual foreign researchers, what is of primary concern is the instance of a foreign government exerting influence “that might run counter to U.S. values of science ethics”. For instance, through the rewarding of a scientist or coercing them to adopt specific behavior, deceiving the funding institution, or outright theft of intellectual property. There is no questioning the allure of American institutions for students and scientists from around the world, and indeed, it is this human capital that provides such a rich fabric for our continuing research enterprise. As we work to continue our leadership in technology innovation, it will be as crucial to remain open to our international counterparts and collaborators, while reinforcing our need for their commitment to respect the ethics and integrity of our scientific process and intellectual property development.