In the past week two papers have opened up fresh discussion on two major human epidemics from the middle of the last millennium. The most well known being the outbreak of plague, or the Black Death, which is estimated to have killed roughly 1/3rd of Europeans as it spread across the continent. The recent paper, authored by a graduate student in Oslo, looked at the speed of the spread of the disease and found rats were unlikely to be a primary relocation source and it was more likely that human ectoparasites were to blame. While it is possible that rodents played a key role in intra-city spread it appears they should not take the blame for the rapid spread across Europe. In addition, a recent paper from Tubingen Germany found DNA evidence of Salmonella enterica from the teeth of Aztecs who died during the second cocoliztli following Cortes’s invasion. While many thought these diseases may have been caused by smallpox or other viral pathogens, it appears Salmonella is the most likely culprit. Are there any other historic medieval or earlier diseases we can start leveraging modern technology for deeper analysis?